Mandragora sp.

Alberto Borghini, 1997. L'estrazione della mandragola nel folklore pistoiese. A proposito di mandragola e quercia. Le Apuane, 34, pp.116-121.
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Albrile, E., 2009. Daēvica enteogena. Rivista degli studi orientali, 82(1/4), pp.263-274.
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Alm, T., 2003. The Witch Trials of Finnmark, Northern Norway, during the 17th Century: Evidence for Ergotism as a Contributing Factor. Economic Botany, 57(3), pp.403-416.Abstract: During the 17th century, Finnmark suffered the worst witch trials on record in Norway; at least 137 persons were tried, and about two-thirds were executed. A late 17th century manuscript by district govenor H. H. Lilienskiold provides details of 83 trials based on contemporaneous sources. More than half of these provide evidence of a potentially important role of ergotism in triggering persecutions. In 42 trials, it is explicitly stated that witchcraft was ‘‘learned’’ by consuming it, usually in the form of bread or other flour products (17 cases), in milk or beer (23 cases), or a combination (two cases). In the cases involving milk, several witches testifed that some kind of black, grain-like objects were found in the drink. Medical symptoms compatible with ergotism were recorded in numerous trials, including gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations; the latter often explicitly stated to occur after consumption of foodstuffs or drink. The majority of the convicted witches were females of Norwegian ethnic origin, living in coastal communities where imported flour formed part of the diet. The few, largely self-supporting Sa ´mi affected by the witchcraft trials were mainly men, convicted, for example, carrying out traditional shamanic rituals. All flour available in Finnmark during the late 17th century was imported. Rye (Secale cereale), which is especially prone to ergot infection, formed a major part of the imported grain.
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Ashton, J., 2000. Curious Creatures in Zoology,
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Bashar, N. & Jodallah, E., 2013. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Mandragora autumnalis Bertol extracts.
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Bekkouche, K. et al., 2001. Calystegine distribution in some solanaceous species. Phytochemistry, 58(3), pp.455-462.Abstract: The distribution of eight calystegines (A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, C1 and N1) and their content was investigated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in Datura metel, Atropa belladonna, Hyoscyamus albus, Mandragora autumnalis, Solanum sodomaeum, Withania somnifera and Brunfelsia nitida. The most frequently encountered calystegines were A3, B1, B2 and B3, while distribution of N1 and C1 was more limited. In all the investigated samples, calystegines A5 and B4 were never detected. This report focuses for the first time on calystegines in Withania and Brunfelsia genera and in Mandragora autumnalis and Solanum sodomaeum species. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
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Bellido Blanco, A., 2016. Rituales y símbolos en el sepulcro colectivo de El Miradero (Villanueva de los Caballeros, Valladolid) = Rituals and symbols in the collective tomb of El Miradero (Villanueva de los Caballeros, Valladolid). Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología, (8), p.59. Available at: http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/ETFI/article/view/13963.
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Coutinho, I. et al., 2016. First archaeometric study on medieval glass found in Beja (Southern Portugal). Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 6559(July).
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Eich., E., 2008. Chapter 2: Secondary Metabolites Derived from Fatty Acids and Carbohydrates.,
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Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z., 1994. Fragrance of Biblical Mandrake. Economic Botany, 48(3), pp.243-251.
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Fleisher, Z. & Fleisher, A., 1992. The Odoriferous Principles of Mandrake, Mandragora officinarum L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 4(2), pp.187-188. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10412905.1992.9698041.
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Guerra Doce, E. & López-Sáez, J.A., 2006. El registro arqueobotánico de plantas psicoactivas en la prehistoria de la Península Ibérica. Una aproximación etnobotánica y fitoquímica a la interpretación de la evidencia. Complutum, 17, pp.7-24.Abstract: Se presenta el repertorio de los vegetales psicoactivos recuperados en yacimientos prehistóricos de la Pe- nínsula Ibérica, estudiándolos desde un punto de vista fitoquímico y etnobotánico, así como los resultados de ciertas analíticas que han permitido identificar indicadores bioquímicos de sus principios activos en residuos de recipientes arqueológicos y en restos humanos. Ciertas evidencias llevan a pensar que, en al- gunos casos, estas plantas pudieron ser empleadas como drogas e, intencionadamente, las comunidades prehistóricas explotaron sus propiedades alucinógenas y/o medicinales.
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Guerra Doce, E., 2006. Evidencias del consumo de drogas en Europa durante la Prehistoria. Trastornos adictivos, 8(1), pp.53-61.
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Hanuš, L., 2007. Papers , reviews and book chapters. , 239(1975), pp.233-239.
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Hanuš, L.O. et al., 2005. Substances isolated from Mandragora species. Phytochemistry, 66(20), pp.2408-2417.Abstract: The present state of knowledge in the chemistry of mandragora plant is reviewed. Isolations and identifications of the compounds were done from all parts of this plant. Up-to-date more than 80 substances were identified in different species of the genus Mandragora. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Kraemer, H., 1899. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE EXAMINATION OF FOODS AND DRUGS. Science (New York, N.Y.), 10(237), pp.59-60.
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Leto, C. et al., 2013. Ethnobotanical study in the Madonie Regional Park (Central Sicily, Italy) - Medicinal use of wild shrub and herbaceous plant species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 146(1), pp.90-112. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.042.Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper illustrates the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in the Madonie Regional Park (Central Sicily, Italy). It specifies the medicinal uses of plants in the study area and contains the results of a quantitative analysis carried out for the first time in an area noted for its high degree of biodiversity. It also introduces 28 species not previously accounted for in the area of study for their medicinal uses, highlighting Silene flos-cuculi L. Greuter & Burdet, little known as medicinal in the Mediterranean area. Aim of the study: To understand to what extent current knowledge on medicinal-use plants is still an element of the culture within the elderly population of the Madonie Regional Park. Methodology: The information was obtained using a semi-structured interview format performed on 150 informants over the age of 60 who were considered experts in plants and rural traditions. The taxa were identified and the results were analysed also using a range of quantitative ethnobotanical indices. Results: A census was made of 174 wild plant species, 100 of which with medicinal and veterinary uses, belonging to 49 botanical families. Of the 170 endemic species found in the Madonie Regional Park, only 2 species were cited in this study for medicinal purposes. Most of the species were used against dermatological diseases, general health and metabolic disorders. The leaves were the most-used parts of the plant and the most common preparation methods were decoction and infusion. The level of knowledge on medicinal uses of the plants was not found to be high within the elderly population, demonstrating an ongoing process of cultural erosion. Conclusions: Only very few medicinal uses are widely known by all the informants and, on many occasions, a specific medicinal use was cited by only very few people. Further study is required in order to find out to what extent knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still present in the younger generations in this area of Sicily, and what methods might be adopted in order to halt this gradual loss in knowledge. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Mason, K.P., 2015. Pediatric sedation outside of the operating room: A multispecialty international collaboration, second edition. Pediatric Sedation Outside of the Operating Room: A Multispecialty International Collaboration, Second Edition, pp.1-755.Abstract: The overall objective in sedation outside the operating room is to provide effective and safe sedation.
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Mele, C. et al., 2006. Flora of Salento (Apulia, Southeastern Italy): an annotated checklist. Flora Mediterranea, 16, pp.193-245.
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Merlin, M.D., 2003. COVER ARTICLE: Archaeological Evidence for the Tradition of Psychoactive Plant Use in the Old World. Economic Botany, 57(3), pp.295-323. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1663/0013-0001(2003)057[0295:AEFTTO]2.0.CO;2.
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Nemes, C. & Goerig, M., 2002. The medical and surgical management of the pilgrims of the Jacobean Roads in medieval times Part 2 . Traces of ergotism and pictures of human suffering in the medieval fine arts. International Congress Series, 1242, pp.487-494.
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Nemes, N., 2002. The medical and surgical treatment of the pilgrims of the Jacobean Roads in medieval times Part 1. The caminos and the role of St. Anthony’s order in curing ergotism. International Congress Series, 1242, pp.31 - 42.
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Nikolaou, P. et al., 2012. Accidental poisoning after ingestion of "aphrodisiac" berries: Diagnosis by analytical toxicology. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 42(6), pp.662-665. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.03.023.Abstract: Background: A large number of plants, seeds, and berries have been used for medicinal, psychotropic, or aphrodisiac purposes for a thousand years. Mandragora officinarum belongs to the family of Solanaceae and is traditionally known as an aphrodisiac and is closely associated with witchcraft. Objectives: In this study we report a case of an accidental poisoning after ingestion of some "aphrodisiac" berries and the contribution of the toxicological analysis in the case investigation. Case Report: A 35-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with clinical signs and symptoms of an anticholinergic syndrome. The diagnosis of the poisoning was made by the toxicological analysis of the patient's urine. The cause of the poisoning was revealed by his girlfriend's disclosure that the patient had intentionally consumed some " aphrodisiac" berries to enhance his sexual performance. Subsequently, berries similar to the ones consumed were sent to the laboratory. The analysis of the urine and the berries revealed the presence of hyoscyamine and scopolamine; the berries were identified as Mandragora officinarum berries. Decontamination and symptomatic treatment were proven effective for the control of this poisoning. The patient recovered completely after hospitalization for 4 days. Conclusion: This case report indicates the importance of analytical toxicology in diagnosis of intoxications after the consumption of unknown plants or plant products and presents the clinical aspects of Mandragora intoxication. Copyright ?? 2012 Elsevier Inc. Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
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O'Neill, G., 1913. From the World of Words : Some Philological Gleanings. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 2(7), pp.229-233.
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Rişcuţa, N.C. & Marc, A.T., 2015. Cultic Discoveries from Late Bronze Age Settlement from Şoimuş – Teleghi. In N. C. Rişcuţa, Ferencz, I. V., & Bărbat, O. T., eds. Proceedings of the symposium on Religion and Magic. Cluj-Napoca: EDITURA MEGA, pp. 139-170.
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Samorini, G., 2005. Funghi allucinogeni italiani: aggiornamenti. Eleusis, pp.71-83.
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Samorini, G., 2002. Funghi psicoattivi delle alpi. Erboristeria Domani, 265(Dicembre), pp.48-57.
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Sinev, I.E., 2016. The history of Mandragora turkomanica (Solanaceae). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 9978(June), pp.1-6. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07929978.2016.1177956.
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Sinev, I.E., 2016. The history of Mandragora turkomanica (Solanaceae). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, pp.1-6. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07929978.2016.1177956.
Societ, B.D. & Onlus, B.I., 2014. Indagini morfologiche e valutazione dei proazuleni sul complesso di Achiellea millefolium in Friuli Venezia Giulia. Informatore Botanico Italiano, 46(2), pp.161-173.
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Wagner, C.G., 1984. Psicoactivos, misticismo y religión en el mundo antiguo.
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Waniak, J., 2007. Mandragora and Belladonna - the Names of Two Magic Plants. Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis, 124.
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